These characteristics can help in categorization of different types and levels of floods as well as it enables us to compare different hazards with each other. Simply, these characteristics can be translated as what, when, where, why, how, how much and who.
The hazard assessment should begin with the identification of what natural hazards can be expected and how they might change in the short and medium term as a result of climate change. First of all, all of the potential hazards are identified. Then the areas that could be affected by the hazard are marked, this is called Hazard Mapping. The magnitude, intensity and frequency of the hazards are determined and the causes of the hazards are investigated. Hazards could include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, drought, cyclones and epidemics.
A comprehensive risk assessment not only evaluates the magnitude and likelihood of potential losses in case of a disaster but also provides full understanding of the causes and impact of those losses. DRA is an integral part of the decision making process. It therefore needs to engage multi-stakeholders from various disciplines and requires close cooperation and collaboration of different organizations and institutions of the target area.
This research study is based on Disaster (Flood 2010) Impact Assessment for District Nowhshera Pakistan. The study analyses the causes of the flood in the area, intensifying factors for the flood and the physical, social, attitudinal, economic and environmental impacts of the flood in the research area.
It also includes the structural and non-structural measures taken to avoid the disaster impact and the challenges faced in Disaster Impact Assessment in the area.
A process of disaster risk management in which at risk communities are actively engaged in identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities.
A physical event, phenomenon or activity that has the potentially to cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation e.g. earthquake, flood, drought, tsunami, cyclone etc. Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity, frequency and probability.
A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster. Capacity may include physical, institutional, social or economic means as well as skilled personal or collective attributes such as leadership and management. Capacity may also be described as capability. Some examples of capacity are: permanent houses, ownership of land, adequate food and income sources, family and community support in times of crisis, local knowledge, good leadership etc.
The systematic process of using administrative decisions and operational skills to implement policies and coping strategies within the communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards. This comprises all forms of activities, including structural and nonstructural measures to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse effects of hazards.
PRA is an exercise in communication and transfer of knowledge. Regardless of whether it is carried out as part of project identification or appraisal or as part of country economic and sector work, the learning by doing and teamwork spirit of PRA requires transparent procedures. For that reason, a series of open meetings (an initial open meeting, final meeting, and follow up meeting) generally frame the sequence of PRA activities. Other tools common in PRA are
One of the characterisitcs of vulnerability is that it is multi-dimensional, that is it can be categorized as physical, social, economic, environmental, institutional, and even human factors can define vulnerability
Vulnerability changes over time and from one disaster to another disaster.
A set of prevailing conditions which adversely affect the community’s ability to prevent, mitigate, prepare for or respond to a hazard. Absence of coping strategies is also a part of vulnerability and has to be considered in vulnerability assessment e.g. living in hazard prone locations like near to a sea or river, above the fault lines, at the base of a mountain etc